Indian Geography / Agriculture
The classification of crops in India is done purely on the basis of food and cash crops. Of the two types of crops in
India, food crops are further classified as Cereals and Pulses and similarly cash crops are further classified into Plantation crops,
Horticulture crops, Oilseeds and Other cash crops.
Indian agriculture is at intensive subsistence level which means it is a kind of farming in which crops that are grown, are consumed by the
farmer himself and his family. Agricultural universities and agricultural research institutes
in India play an important role in provding timely inputs to the farming community.
Classification of Crops in India
Since our country follows Mixed Cropping pattern, the same agricultural field is used for different types of crops grown in
India at the same time. India also follows Crop Rotation where legume based crops are used in place of main crops for some duration.
India also follows Fallowing where the land will be kept idle for sometime after its usage so that soil replenishment happens naturally.
Indian agriculture follows Mixed Farming in which same land is meant for both Agriculture and Animal Husbandry.
Types of Food Crops in India
There are mainly two types of food crops in India namely, Cereals and Pulses. Cereals are further classified as Fine Cereals and Coarse
Cereals. Rice and Wheat constitute Fine Cereals. Coarse Cereals can be Millets or Non-Millets. Millets include Ragi, Jowar, Bajra, etc. and
Non-Millets include Maize, Barley, etc.
- Rice - Of the different types of crops in India, Rice occupies first position in the country by the sown area and it also occupies
first position in production volume in the food crops category. India occupies Second position in rice production in the world after China.
Rice generally grows in a high temperature (> 250C) and high rainfall (> 100 cm) regions having high humidity. Loamy soils
are suitable for rice cultivation but it can also be cultivated on any soil. It requires waterlogged conditions.
It is normally cultivated in Kharif season, but if water is available it can also be cultivated
in Rabi season also. Eastern Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Malabar, Andhra Pradesh are the rice zones of India.
- Wheat - Wheat generally requires moderate temperature and moderate rainfall of 50-75 cm. It is normally cultivated in winter
i.e. Rabi season. India occupies Second position in wheat production in the world after China.
It is generally grown in
North India and the Southern limit is from Belgaum in Karnataka to Adilabad in Telangana. 80% wheat cultivation in India is done under irrigated
conditions. Rice and wheat are staple foods of India.
- Coarse cereals like Jowar, Ragi, Bajra, Maize, etc. are cultivated in Kharif season. They are generally cultivated in rainfed
areas. But the area under coarse cereal cultivation is going down.
As more number of dams are constructed, people are going more
towards high yielding crops. In addition to that there is shift in dietary habits of the people. Government policy of Minimum Support Price
(MSP) for other crops is also one more cause for its decline.
- Bajra - The area of North Gujarat and Western Rajasthan is the Bajra zone of India. The largest producer of Bajra in India is
Rajasthan. It is also cultivated in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Haryana. Bajra requires less water for its cultivation.
- Jowar - Half of India's Jowar comes from Maharashtra, followed by Karnataka, Telangana and Madhya Pradesh.
- Ragi - The largest producer of Ragi in India is Karnataka which is followed by Tamil Nadu. The Northern limit of Ragi
cultivation is Odisha.
- Maize - Maize, which is a Kharif crop, is cultivated throughout India. The area under cultivation of maize is expanding. The main
producers of Maize are Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh,Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
- Different types of pulse crops in India are Peas, Lentils, Red gram, Green gram, Black Gram, etc. Pulses are cultivated only under
Rainfed areas that is in Drylands. Cultivation of pulses is more in Central India.
- The production and yield levels since independence is stagnant for pulses. It is one of the area of concern in Indian agriculture. Per
capita availability of pulses is around 34 gm/day/head, but National Institution of Nutrition, Hyderabad recommended 78 gm/day/head.
We are importing pulses mainly from Myanmar.
- It is a cheap source of protein in Indian food. Deficiency in protein results in stunted growth.
Types of Cash Crops in India
Cash crops in India comprise of Plantation crops, Horticulture crops, Oilseeds and Other cash crops. Plantation crops include rubber,
coffee, tea, etc. Horticulture crops include vegetables, fruits, spices, flowers, etc.
- Tea - Tea is a Temperate crop. It requires cooler climate and high rainfall (> 200 cm) for its cultivation. It is grown in
well drained slopes.
India remains the second largest producer of tea in the world after China. Tea is grown mainly in
Assam (> 50% of India), Darjeeling Hills of West Bengal and Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu.
Tea Research Association is located at Tocklai in Assam.
- Coffee - Coffee is mainly a Tropical crop. It generally requires high temperature and high rainfall and is grown in well
80% of Coffee is grown in Western ghats of Karnataka, which is called Coffee state of India. The remaining
Coffee is grown in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh hills.
- Rubber - Rubber is mainly a Tropical crop. It requires temperature of more than 250C and rainfall of more than 200 cm.
It is also grown in well drained slopes.
90% of Rubber is grown in Kerala, which is called Rubber state of India. The remaining
are grown in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. India ranks fourth among world's largest natural rubber producers.
- Fruit Cultivation - India contributes 10% of world fruit production. It ranks number one in Mango, Banana and Grapes
Mango accounts for about 39% of area of fruit cultivation in India and about 23% of total fruit production and about 54%
of total world's mango production. After mango, citrus fruits occupy maximum area of cultivation followed by Banana.
- Vegetables - India ranks second in producing vegetables after China and accounts for 13% of world's vegetable production.
India ranks number one in Cauliflower, Cabbage and Onion production in the world.
- Spices - Chillies account for around 33% of total spices production followed by Turmeric (22%). Andhra Pradesh remains the
largest producer of chillies and turmeric.
India ranks number one in the world in Cashew production, Cashew processing and
Cashew export. It contributes to 45% of world's Cashew production.
- Two principal oilseeds in India are Groundnut and Mustard and to some extent oil palms and sunflower. Groundnut is grown in Kathiawar
plains, Eastern Gujarat plains and Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh.
Mustard is grown in Great Northern Plains. Oil palms are
grown in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
- Due to Yellow Revolution, India turned from Net importer status in oil to Net exporter status in oil seeds. In Yellow Revolution,
Soya as well as other High yielding variety seeds were introduced and at the same time MSP was announced for oilseeds and subsidies were
provided to oilseed farmers.
Other Cash Crops
Other types of cash crops in India include Sugarcane, Cotton, Jute, Tobacco, etc.
- Sugarcane - India is positioned at second place in the world in terms of area and production of the sugarcane after
Brazil. In the over all crops category, sugarcane occupies first position in the country in terms of production volume. Sugarcane
requires a temperature of 20-260C and rainfall of 150 cm.
Sugarcane is grown in the states of Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh,
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Gujarat, etc.
- Cotton - India ranks second in terms of area after USA and ranks third in the world in Cotton production after USA and China.
Cultivation of cotton requires a temperature range of 20-300C and a rainfall of 50-75 cm.
The crop will not be able to
tolerate water-logging. Cotton is grown in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Telangana, Haryana, Karnataka, etc.
- Jute - India is the largest producer of Jute having a share of around 60% in the world. It requires a temperature of
24-350C and high water supply.
Jute is one of the 2 types of crops in India that is used in textile industry,
the other being Cotton. The main Jute producing states in India are West Bengal, Bihar, Assam and Odisha.
- Tobacco - India is positioned third in the world in tobacco production after China and USA. It requires an average rainfall
of less than 50 cm and a temperature range of 16-400C and it will not be able to tolerate frost. Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and
Gujarat are the chief tobacco producing states of India.