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Medieval History / Early Medieval Era

Kalyani Chalukyas History

The founder of Western Chalukya Dynasty is Tailapa II, who assassinated his overlord, Karka II of Rashtrakuta dynasty. They are also called Kalyani Chalukyas after their capital name Kalyani (modern Basavakalyan). The capital of Chalukyas of Kalyani was initially located at Manyakheta and later moved to Kalyani. Western Chalukyas fought many wars with the Chola dynasty to reduce Chola influence in Vengi, which was controlled by Eastern Chalukyas.

Important Kalyani Chalukya Kings

  • Vikramaditya VI - He had two scholars in his court, namely Bilhana (a Kashmiri) and Vijnaneshwara. Bilhana wrote Vikramankadevacharita and Vijnaneshwara, who was a jurist, wrote Mitakshara, a law book (Dharmasastra) based on Yajnavalkya Smriti.

  • Someshvara III - He was a scholar by himself. Someshvara III wrote a book named Manasollasa, which is also called Abhilashitartha Chintamani. He also wrote the incomplete biography, Vikramankabhyudaya of his father Vikramaditya VI. He took the titles as Sarvadnya-bhupa and Bhulokamala.

  • Tailapa III - During his reign, Western Chalukya empire started to disintegrate. The capital Kalyani was captured by Kalachuri Bijjala II and ruled from the capital. During this time, Tailapa III fled to Annigeri.

  • Someshvara IV - He was the last ruler of Kalyani Chalukyas. He tried revive the Western Chalukya empire by defeating the declining Kalachuri kingdom. He was able to capture Kalyani briefly but failed in resisting other feudatories like the Hoysalas, the Yadavas and the Kakatiyas from completely overpowering the empire.

Three Gems of Kannada Literature

  • They are the first three Kannada poets (10 - 11th C). They are Pampa, Sri Ponna and Ranna. They are called Ratnatraya in Kannada literature.

  • Pampa - He is also called Adikavi Pampa in Kannada. He wrote "Vikramarjuna Vijaya" also called Pampa Bharata, a translation of Mahabharata. He wrote one more book named "Adipurana" on first Tirthankara of Jainism, Rishabhanatha.

  • Sri Ponna - He wrote Shantipurana, a book on Shantinatha, one of the Tirthankaras.

  • Ranna - Ranna was in the court of the Western Chalukya kings Tailapa II and his successor Satyashraya. Ranna wrote Ajitha Purana, a book on Ajitanatha, one of the Tirthankaras.

  • All the three gems of Kannada literature were Jains.

Extra Information

Present Hindu Law of Inheritance is based on Mitakshara except in Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha. In these states, Inheritance is based on Dayabhaga (based on Manusmriti), which was written by Jimutavahana in 12th C. According Dayabhaga, property can be inherited after death of parents but according to Mitakshara, children have equal rights after they were born.