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Medieval History / Early Medieval Era

Short Note on Rashtrakutas

Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled between 753 and 982 AD in the Deccan region. The early capital of Rashtrakutas was initially located at Mayurkhandi and later moved to Manyakheta. It was Dantidurga, who was the founder of Rashtrakuta dynasty, killed Kirtivarman II of Badami Chalukya dynasty to establish the kingdom. They were incharge of Rashtras during the rule of Badami Chalukyas.

Rulers of Rashtrakuta Dynasty

  • Dantidurga built two beautiful cave temples in Ellora namely, Dasavatara cave temple and Ravan ki Khai cave temple. Rashtrakuta dynasty rulers are the last rulers to patronize rock cut cave temples.

  • Second king Krishna I built the Kailash temple at Ellora (It is the 16th cave, World Heritage Center by UNESCO). It is the largest monolithic cave temple in the world. It is a replica of the Kailasanathar temple of Kanchipuram.
  • King Amoghavarsha I

    • He ruled between 814 AD and 878 AD. He was the greatest ruler of Rashtrakuta dynasty.

    • He built a new city called Manyakheta (modern Malkheda or Malkhed). During his reign, the Rashtrakuta capital has been shifted to Malkhed from the early capital of Rashtrakutas i.e. Mayurkhandi (modern Morkhandi).

    • He was a great scholar and he took the title Kaviraja. It is Amoghavarsha I, who wrote Kavirajamarga. It is the first book in Kannada language. The book is related to Grammar. He wrote another book in Sanskrit named Prashnottara Ratna Malika on Jainism.

    • He patronized Jain religion. He had number of Jain scholars in his court like Mahaviracharya (Jain mathematician) who wrote a book Ganitasarasangraha in Sanskrit and Sakatayana who wrote a book named Amogavritti, a book on Grammar.

    • Amoghavarsha performed Sallekhana in a different manner. He did it by submerging himself in the waters of river Tungabhadra.

  • In 949 AD, king Krishna III fought battle of Takkolam, in which he defeated Parantaka I of Chola dynasty. He took the title Thanjavur Konda. He defeated the Pandyas later. Pillar of victory of Krishna III can be seen in Rameswaram.

  • In 973 AD, king Karka II was assassinated by a Samanta king named Tailapa II with which Rashtrakuta dynasty almost came to an end and Kalyani Chalukya dynasty came into existence. Last ruler of Rashtrakuta dynasty, Indra IV ruled for some more time up to 982 AD with the remnant kingdom.