Medieval History / Delhi Sultanate
Qutb-ud-din Aibak was the founder of Slave dynasty in India. It is the first Muslim dynasty in India and Aibak is the first ruler of Delhi Sultanate. Slave
dynasty is also known as Mamluk dynasty or Ilbari dynasty. Since Qutb-ud-din Aibak was a slave of Muhammad of Ghor, the dynasty is called Slave
dynasty. The other sultans of this dyansty, who were slaves in their earlier career, were Shams-ud-din Iltutmish and Ghiyas-ud-din Balban.
Delhi Sultanate was founded in the year 1206 and it ruled up to 1526. There are 5 dynasties of Delhi Sultanate, namely Slave dynasty (1206 - 1290 AD), Khilji Dynasty (1290 - 1320 AD), Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 - 1440 AD), Sayyid Dynasty (1440 - 1451 AD) and Lodi Dynasty (1451 - 1526 AD).
Persian was the official language of Delhi Sultanate
as well as Mughal dynasty. Two historians gave information about the
history of Slave dynasty of Delhi Sultanate through their books. Hasan Nizami, who was in the court of Iltutmish, wrote a book named Taj-ul-Maasir in Persian.
It deals with Qutb-ud-din Aibak and Iltutmish. Minhaj-i-Siraj, who wrote Tabaqat-i-nasiri, was in the court of Razia Sultana.
Slave Dynasty Rulers
The Slave dynasty rulers list consists of Qutb-ud-Din Aibak, Aram Shah, Iltutmish, Rukn-ud-din Firoz, Razia Sultana, Muiz-ud-din Bahram,
Ala-ud-din Masud, Nasiruddin Mahmud, Ghiyas-ud-din Balban and Muiz-ud-din Qaiqabad. The important rulers among them are Qutb-ud-din Aibak,
Iltutmish, Razia Sultana and Ghiyas-ud-din Balban.
Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206 - 1210 AD)
- Qutb-ud-din Aibak ruled from Lahore. Though he was the first ruler of Slave dynasty, he did not take the title Sultan. Qutb-ud-din Aibak took
the title of Lakh Baksh. The meaning of Lakh Baksh is "Giver of lakhs to poor". He also had the titles, Malik and Sipahsalar
- He died in an accident while playing a game called Chaugan (Horse Polo). After his death, his slave cum son-in-law Iltutmish ruled the
kingdom by defeating Aram Shah, who came to power immediately after Qutb-ud-din Aibak's death.
- Qutb-ud-din Aibak built 2 mosques in India, Quwwat-ul-Islam in Mehrauli (Qutb Minar is Azan of Quwwat-ul-Islam) and
Adhai Din ka Jhonpra in Ajmer.
Shams-ud-din Iltutmish (1211 - 1236 AD)
- Iltutmish can be regarded as the real founder of Delhi Sultanate as he shifted the capital to Delhi. He started his career as a slave to Aibak. He got
appointed as a Sar-i-Jandar (Head of royal bodyguards) and later got appointed as the Governor of Badaun.
- Silver Tanka and Copper Jital coins were introduced by Iltutmish (1 Tanka = 48 Jitals). He is the first Muslim king to introduce coins and he is also the
first Muslim king to get Mansur from Khalifa.
- Iltutmish saved India from the brutal attack of Genghis Khan (the Greatest warrior after Alexander) in a diplomatic manner in 1221 AD.
Genghis Khan conquered Khwarezmian empire and the king Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu fled to Delhi but asylum was rejected to the king by Iltutmish.
- It was Iltutmish, who introduced Iqta system (or Iqtadari system), a new tax farming system, which is nothing but giving land assignment (may be a
Village, Taluk, Province, etc.) to officers in lieu of cash salary along with the military responsibility (maintaining military).
- Not all the lands are given as Iqta. Khalisa land is the crown land whose income goes to the king's treasury. King used to maintain his army known as
Standing Army. The Iqtadars used to supply the remaining army.
- An association of the nobles (Iqtadars) got formed and it was named as Turkan-i-Chahalgani. It had 40 officers, who belonged to Turkish race. This
association is also called Chalisa as it had group of forty members.
- Chalisa made an adverse impact on the Iqta system. The king became a puppet in the hands of Nobles. The Chalisa or group of forty organization became the
de facto authority and the king became the de jure authority.
Razia Sultana (1236 - 1240 AD)
- Razia Sultana is the only Muslim woman to rule India (First and last woman). She is the daughter of Iltutmish. Ulemas refused Razia as
the Sultan as Sharia clearly states that a woman cannot be a ruler.
Sultans of Medieval period were controlled by Ulemas and kings used to give land grants known as Sayurghal or Inam to Ulemas.
- She tried to empower the non-Turkish people. Afghans were given high positions by her.
- A Habshi (slave) named Jamal-ud-din Yakut was the favorite person of Razia. He was appointed as Amir-e-Akhur (incharge of elephants and horses), a position
reserved for the Turkish.
All the nobles were against Razia. Even her Prime Minister Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi was also a rival to her. She was killed along with Jamal-ud-din Yakut.
After Razia, there were 3 rulers, who are not that important.
Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1266 - 1286 AD)
- Balban, who was the most powerful ruler of the Slave dynasty, went on to become the Sultan from an ordinary slave. He was appointed as a Khasdar (personal
attender) to Iltutmish.
When Nasir-ud-din Mahmud was the Sultan, Balban was made as Wazir (PM) and after that he was promoted as Deputy Sultan. In 1266, after
the death of Nasiruddin, he declared himself as the Sultan of Delhi.
- He never spent time on conquests. He concentrated on consolidation of kingdom. Turkan-i-Chihalgani was destroyed by Balban, who acted as an active member
before. He murdered most important nobles.
- He introduced some Iranian traditions in the court.
- Sijda (bowing down before a person) - Each person has to do Sijda before the Sultan.
- Paibos (it is kissing the feet) - Every visitor should kiss the feet of the Sultan to show supremacy of the Sultan.
- Navroz (Iranian New Year day) was introduced in the court. Every officer is expected to come and give some gifts to their superiors.
- He created the Department of Military (previously it was with Finance Department, Diwan-i-Wazarat, headed by Wazir), which is now called Diwan-i-Ariz.
- A gold coin was introduced by him called Dirham.
- He suppressed the Meos (robber tribal community of Mewat and Rohilkhand) and restored the law and order. Through Blood and Iron policy of Balban, Meos were
- Balban suppressed the revolt of Tughril Khan, the Governor of Bengal (through blood and iron policy) and Balban's son Bughra Khan was appointed as Bengal
Governor. Balban enjoyed de jure and de facto authority.
Muiz-ud-din Qaiqabad (1286 - 1290 AD)
- Muiz-ud-din Qaiqabad was the last ruler of Slave dynasty. He was the grandson of Balban. He was very weak physically (paralyzed).
- He was assassinated by his officer named Jalal-ud-din Khalji and hence the Slave dynasty in India came to an end and Khilji Dynasty came into power.
History of Delhi
Former name of Delhi was Indraprastha (Pre-Mauryan period). After Mauryan period, the city got disappeared. In 8th Century, a
Rajput ruler of Tomara Dynasty named Anangpal built a new city called Dhillika (capital of Tomaras) on the site of Indraprastha. Muslim rulers
captured Dhillika and around it, they built 7 cities. Dhillika along with 7 cities is called Delhi. 5 cities were built by Delhi Sultans and 2 by
|Name of the city
||Muhammad bin Tughlaq
||Firoz Shah Tughlaq