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Ancient History / Indus Valley Civilization

Important Sites of Indus Valley Civilization

    Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Chanhudaro, Lothal, Kot Diji, Kalibangan, Dholavira are some of the important sites of Indus valley civilization. More than 1500 sites of Harappan civilization have been discovered so far. Almost all of these sites are located either in India or Pakistan and majority are being located in India.


    • Harappa was discovered in 1921 under the supervision of Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni. It is the first site to be discovered in the whole of Indus valley civilization sites.
    • It was discovered near the old course of river Ravi in the Western Punjab region of Pakistan.
    • Harappa had a granary having two rows, each row having six rooms.
    • Cemeteries, wooden coffins, bronze figure of bullock cart, etc. were found in Harappa.
    • The last rites of people in Harappa were done in different ways. There were complete burials, burial in coffins, cremation, ash burial after cremation, etc.


    • The literal meaning Mohenjo-daro is 'Mound of the Dead Men'. It was discovered in the year, 1922 by R.D. Banerji.
    • It is located in the western side of the river Indus in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It is the biggest city of the Indus valley civilization.
    • It had a 'Great Granary' near to which there was a 'Great Bath'.
    • A steatite image of bearded priest, a bronze dancing girl, a seal of Pashupati or proto-Shiva surrounded by animals, three cylindrical seals of Mesopotamia, etc. were found in this site.


    • It was discovered in 1931 by N.G. Majumdar. It is located 130 km south of Mohenjo-daro site in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
    • Here lipstick, Eye Makeup (Kohl), ink pot, razors, etc. were found.


    • It was discovered in 1955 by S.R. Rao. It is located near Bhogavo river in Gujarat.
    • It is imagined to be a port city since a dock is present adjacent to the river.
    • Here, we can find castle-like object similar to chess board and twin burial in which a male and a female were buried.

    Kot Diji

    • Kot Diji is located on the left bank of the river Indus in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
    • It was a pre-Harappan site and continued its presence during Harappan period.
    • Here, terracotta figurines of animals and mother goddess, pottery with different designs, storage jars, toy carts, etc. were found.


    • It was discovered by Italian Indologist Luigi Pio Tessitori as a pre-Historic site and later Amalananda Ghosh recognised it as Harappan site.
    • It is located on the left bank of the river Ghaggar (old Saraswati river) in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan.
    • Here, row of fire altars, ploughed fields, bones of cattle and camels, a seal having script without any pictographs, etc. were found.


    • It has been discovered by J.P Joshi. It is being located in Kutch District of Gujarat.
    • In Dholavira, which is the largest Harappan site in India, we find a water reservoir, a circular seal, a stadium, a sign board inscription of about 3 meters length, etc.