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Ancient History / Post-Guptan Era

Pushyabhuti Dynasty and Harshavardhana


    The Pushyabhuti dynasty initially ruled as one of the feudatories to the Maukhari king of Kannauj. The greatest king of this dynasty is Harshavardhana. Their capital was at Sthaneshvara (Thanesar). Harshacharita written by Bana names Pushyabhuti as the founder of this dynasty. Prabhakara Vardhana became an independent king and took the title Maha Rajadhiraja. He was succeeded by his eldest son, named Rajyavardhana. After the demise of Rajyavardhana, his younger brother Harshavardhana succeeded him.

    Administration of Harshavardhana

    • Harshavardhana is the greatest among all other kings of this dynasty. He took two titles namely, Rajaputra and Shiladitya.
    • His military achievements included annexation of Maukhari kingdom and shifting of the capital from Thanesar to Kannauj. He also conquered Vallabhi, Assam, Odisha, Bihar and Bengal. His military failure was being the defeat in the hands of Pulakesi II of Badami Chalukya dynasty and both accepted Narmada as their boundary.
    • During the post Gupta period, the other kingdoms that were ruling across India were,
      • Maukhari kingdom with capital at Kannauj, Uttar Pradesh
      • Maitraka kingdom with capital at Vallabhi, Gujarat
      • Gauda kingdom with capital at Karanasuvarna, Bengal. In this kingdom, a king named Shashanka, a Shaivite and anti-Buddhist, destroyed the Bodhi tree of Gaya.
      • Kamarupa kingdom was ruled by Varman dynasty with capital at Pragjyotishpura (the present day Guwahati).
    • Welfare Measures of Harshavardhana
      • He created a welfare state (after Ashoka). He set up many hospitals for poor, built number of roads and bridges, built number of Dharmashalas (food used to be distributed to the poor).
      • He was conducting Maha Moksha Parishad at Prayaga. It is a quinquennial programme conducted for every 5 years. In this Parishad, whatever wealth was there in the treasury used to be brought to Prayaga and given it out to the poor.
        According to one of the Chinese travellers, Hiuen Tsang (he visited India during Harsha’s reign), Maha Moksha Parishad was used to be conducted for 75 days. In total, 6 such Parishads were conducted. Everything used to be given out including personal jewelry. He generally returns with pair of clothes.
    • Harshavardhana's Contribution to Literature
      • Harshavardhana was a scholar by himself. He wrote 3 dramas namely, Priyadarshika, Ratnavali and Nagananda all in Sanskrit.
      • His court poet Bana wrote Harshacharita, Kadambari and Parvati Parinayam.
    • In 643AD, Harshavardhana conducted a religious Assembly at Kannauj known as Kannauj Assembly which was attended by people of all religions. It was a kind of Parliament of religions. For it, Hiuen Tsang was the president.
    • Harshavardhana was initially a Shaivite and later took Mahayana Buddhism under influence of Hiuen Tsang.

    History of India after Harshavardhana

    • Next 100 years after Harshavardhana, no proper records were found about North India. According to Chinese sources, after the death Harshavardhana, an officer named "Arunasva" usurped the throne from the successor of Harshavardhana. Wang-Hiuen-Tse, a military commander sent by Chinese emperor, defeated Arunasva and took him to China as a prisoner and the kingdom was given back to Harshavardhana's successor. Harshavardhana and the Chinese emperor were maintaining good diplomatic relations.
    • During the period between 650 AD and 750 AD, a king named Yashovarman (around 700 AD) was ruling over Kannauj for some time. He wrote books and patronized scholars. He wrote a Sanskrit drama named Ramabhyudayam. Two scholars were present in his court.
      • Bhavabhuti - He wrote 3 Sanskrit dramas namely, Malatimadhava, Uttara Ramacharita and Mahaviracharita
      • Vakpati - He wrote a book named Gaudavaho (about Yasovarman conquering Bengal) in Prakrit language.