Ancient History / Indus Valley Civilization
Information about the religion of Indus valley civilization is very meagre and indirect and is known only through the seals, terracotta figurines, cemeteries, etc. If we look at the economy of Indus valley civilization, there is great progress in almost all aspects of economic activity such as agriculture, animal husbandry, handicrafts, trade and industry.
Religion of Indus Valley Civilization
- If we look at the religion of Indus valley civilization, various religious pantheons were worshiped by Indus valley people. In addition to
religious pantheons, Indus valley civilization gods included Pashupati Mahadeva and Mother Goddess, which was found everywhere.
- The male deity, Pashupati Mahadeva, was found on a seal at Mohenjodaro. He had three heads surrounded by three animals. He is
considered as proto-Shiva, that is Shiva in transition.
- At Mohenjo-daro, phallic (Linga) worship can be found. Both stone Lingas and stone Yonies were used to be worshiped in Indus valley
- Tree, Bull, Snake, etc. were used to be worshiped in the religion of Harappan civilization.
- There used to be animal sacrifices in the religious life of Indus valley civilization.
- Amulets were worn to prevent ghost and evil spirits in the religious beliefs of Harappan civilization.
Economy of Indus Valley Civilization
- Economy of Indus valley civilization was purely agrarian in nature. The people of Indus valley were growing two crops a year, Kharif crops (Autumn crops) like cotton, mustard, sesame, etc. and Rabi crops (Winter crops) like wheat, barley, etc.
Rice was known to Indus Valley people but it was not extensively cultivated. Two sites where rice was grown, were found, one at Lothal
(Gujarat), where a grain of rice was found and the other at Rangpur (Gujarat), where rice husk was found.
- Domestication of animals was a secondary activity in Harappan economy. Cattle, Camel, Pigs, Sheep, etc. were reared. Horse was known to
Indus Valley people but was not domesticated extensively. At Lothal (Gujarat), where a terracotta figurine of horse was found and at Surkotada (Gujarat), skeletal remains of horse was found.
Plough was known to Indus Valley people but it was rarely used. But hoe was extensively used in the economic life of Harappan civilization.
Two sites were found showing evidence of usage of plough, one at Banawali (Haryana), where a terracotta toy plough was found and
the other at Kalibangan (Rajasthan), where ploughing fields (furrows) were excavated.
- Regarding industries, profession based handicraft industries were found like Shell and beads industry (beads of gemstones, gold, etc.),
brick industry, Copper and Bronze industry, shipbuilding industry (at Lothal), textile industry, etc.
- Both internal and foreign trade was at vogue during Indus Valley Civilization. Trade was carried out through the barter system in the economic life of Indus valley civilization.
For internal trade, bullock carts were extensively used for transportation. Through the port of Lothal, external trade was carried out
by ships to the Sumerian civilization.
- In the economy of Harappan civilization, people were using 16 as a unit like 16 Chataks were equal to 1 Ser, 16 Machhakas were equal to
1 Pana, etc.