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Indian Economy / Agriculture Sector

Introduction of Agricultural Sector in India

    There exists a total land area of 328 million hectares in the Indian geographical area. The net cropland area of India ranges 175-180 million hectares and stands first in the world followed by USA, China and Russia in that order. In Indian agriculture, we mainly find disguised unemployment, which is nothing but a kind of unemployment in which some people are seemed to be employed but actually they are not.

    • Gross Area Sown ( GAS ) is Net Area Sown ( NAS ) plus Area sown more than once. Cropping intensity is nothing but the ratio of GAS to NAS. The present cropping intensity of India is 1.36 or 136%.
    • In India, water for agricultural requirements comes from Monsoon ( both South-West and North-East Monsoon ) and Irrigation facilities. The Irrigation facilities include Canal ( major irrigation facility ), Tanks ( minor ) and Wells ( minor ). In India, Gross area irrigated is about 40% of Gross Area Sown.
    • Land Distribution - In India, marginal farmers ( possessing land of less than 1 hectare ) comprise of 60%. So, agriculture is at subsistence level in India. Small farmers ( having 1-2 hectares ) comprise of 20% of total farmers.
    • Production of food grains in India are around 280-290 million tonnes of which Rice is around 113 million tonnes, wheat around 100 million tonnes, Coarse Cereals around 47 million tonnes and Pulses around 25 million tonnes. In India, we grow around 9 different pulses.
    • India's food grain production got enhanced highly because of Green Revolution.
    • Oil seeds production in India is around 25-30 million tonnes.
    • India is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world.
    • Animal Husbandry in India -
      • Livestock production is integral part of Crop Farming. It alleviates poverty through extra household income.
      • It contributes at about 4.5% to the GDP and provides household nutritional security. It contributes around quarter percent to the total Agriculture GDP.
      • India has largest number of livestock in the world and also ranks first in buffalo population and second in both cattle and goat population in the world.
      • India ranks first in milk production ( because of White Revolution ). India ranks third in the world in eggs production and it is the sixth largest poultry meat producer in the world.
    • Fisheries -
      • India's fish production got enhanced because of Blue Revolution.
      • Fisheries is considered to be one of the important source of livelihood for a greater section of the economically backward population particularly in coastal area.
      • About 14 million population are employed in different activities of fisheries.
      • India occupies second position in the world in fish production.
    • Forestry - Most of the forest area is under Government control. It also plays very important role in agriculture in the form of environmental protection and for ensuring ecological balance.