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Indian Economy / Macro Social Aggregates

Population in India

Population Census was conducted in 1872 for the first time in India. In 1881, next census was conducted. It was done in more systematic way synchronizing the census year. Census is being conducted by Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.

Concepts and Definitions about Population Census

  • Permanent Location Code Number (PLCN) - It is a number assigned to each geographical unit in a serpentine fashion starting from the North-West corner and ending with the South-East corner.

  • Urban Area (Census Town) - A geographical area is called an urban area if

    • It has a population of at least 5000 people (i.e. around 1000 households)

    • At least 75% of male working population is engaged in non-agricultural pursuit

    • It has density of population of at least 400 per sq.km.

  • Outgrowth - A portion of a village or the whole village which is immediately adjacent to a census town and have predominant urban characteristics but does not qualify to be treated as an independent town.

  • Urban Agglomeration - A Census town together with the outgrowth attached to it, is known as urban agglomeration.

  • Literate - A person, who is 7 years and above and is in a position to write and read with understanding well in any language, is considered a literate. For this, no formal education is necessary.

  • Sex Ratio - It is the number of female persons per thousand males.

Salient Features of National Population Policy 2000

  • Making the school education free and compulsory until the age of 14 years and reducing the dropout rate of students at primary and secondary school level.

  • Bringing down the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to below 30 for every 1000 live births. Reducing the Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) to below 100 for 100000 deliveries.

  • Accomplishing universal immunization of the children against all kinds of vaccine preventable diseases.

  • Promoting delayed marriages for the girls, not earlier than eighteen years and preferably after twenty years of age.

  • Achieving 80% institutional deliveries and 100% deliveries by trained persons.

2011 Population Census Highlights

  • India ranks second in the list of most populous countries after China, accounting for 17.5% of the total world population.

  • Population has grown up to around 1210.19 million from about 1028 million in 2001, registering a simple growth rate of 17.64% over a decade.

  • Rural population accounts for 68.84% while the urban population accounts for 31.16%.

  • Sex ratio got increased to 940 females per 1000 males from 933 females per 1000 males but Child sex ratio (in the 0-6 age group) is 914 females per 1000 males, which is alarming.

  • Density of population got increased to 382 / km2 from 324 / km2.

  • Literacy rate got increased to 74.04% from 64.84%. Female literacy has gone up to 65.50% from 53.67%.

  • Uttar Pradesh remains the most populous State in the country and it is followed by Maharashtra.

Demographic Indicators

  • Sample Registration System (SRS) is implemented by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India prepares demographic indicators based on Sample Registration System.

  • Crude Birth Rate = Number of Births / 1000 population = 19.3 (for 2016)

  • Crude Death Rate = Number of Deaths / 1000 population = 7.3 (for 2016)

  • Rate of Natural Increase (difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate) = 12 (for 2016)

  • Total Fertility Rate, which is average number of children per women in the reproductive age group, is 2.43 ( or 2017)

  • Infant Mortality Rate, which is number of babies dying before completion of one year per 1000 live births, is 41 (for 2016)

  • Maternal Mortality Rate, which is number of pregnant women dying after delivery per 100000 live births, is 130 (for 2014-16)

  • Life Expectancy at Birth, which is average number of years that a newborn baby lives, is 68.8 (for 2017)