Indian Economy / Capital Markets
The Capital market is the financial market for the long term funds. Since 1991, Indian capital market has been getting broadened significantly and the
volume of savings and investment has shown significant improvement. Capital market comprises of primary and secondary markets. Primary market handles the
trading of new issues or Initial Public Offering ( IPO ) of stocks and other securities, while secondary market handles the trading of already issued
One more significant classification in the capital market is done on the basis of the type of security that is traded. They are classified as stock market
and bond market. Stock Market is the financial market, where already issued shares and their derivatives like futures and options of different companies are
traded. The places, where these securities are traded are called Stock exchanges, e.g. Bombay Stock Exchange ( BSE ), National Stock Exchange ( NSE ), etc.
- It is the index of Bombay Stock Exchange. 1978-79 is taken as the Base year for Sensex and the base value started with 100 index points.
- Sensex comprises of 30 most actively traded scrips on BSE.
- BSE is situated in Mumbai.
- It is the primary index of National Stock Exchange. The base year for NIFTY-50 is 1995 and the base value started with 100 index points.
- It is also situated in Mumbai.
- It comprises of 50 most actively traded scrips on National stock Exchange.
- The present index values are different for NIFTY-50 and SENSEX because of difference in base years.
- Bull Market - A stock market which is being characterized by rising prices of the stocks over a long period of time because of investor optimism and sound
economic growth is called Bull Market.
- Bear Market - A Stock Market which is being characterized by falling stock prices because of investor permission is called Bear Market.
- Credit Rating Agencies - There are 3 credit rating agencies operating in the country and providing required guidance to the investors. They are
- CRISIL ( Credit Rating Information Services of India Limited ), which is established in 1987.
- ICRA Limited ( Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency ), which is established in 1991.
- CARE ( Credit Analysis and Research Limited ), which is established in 1993.