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Indian Geography / Population of India

Demographic Trends and Issues in India


    If we consider demographic trends in India, the population has grown up to 1210.19 million in 2011 from about 1028 million in 2001, recording a simple growth rate of 17.64% over a period of one decade. Uttar Pradesh is the largest populated state in the country and it is being followed by Maharashtra. Rural population constitutes 68.84% while the urban population constitutes 31.16%.

    Population Density of India

    • Density of population has raised to 382 persons / km2 from 324 / km2 in 2011.
    • If we consider Union Territories, Delhi tops the list in population density and is having 11,297 persons / km2 followed by Chandigarh having 9,252 / km2. If we consider the states, Bihar has the highest density of population having 1,102 persons / km2 followed by West Bengal having 1,030 / km2.
    • Among the states, Arunachal Pradesh is having the lowest population density of 17 persons / km2 followed by Mizoram having 52 / km2. Among the Union Territories, Andaman & Nicobar Islands has the lowest population density of 46 persons / km2 followed by Dadra and Nagar Haveli having 698 / km2.

    Sex Ratio in India

    • Sex ratio got raised to 940 females per 1000 males in 2011 from 933 number of females per 1000 males in 2001 but the Child sex ratio which is taken in the age group of 0-6 years, is 914 females per 1000 males, which is a cause of concern.
    • Sex ratio remained at 972 in the year 1901, 946 in 1951 and 933 in 2001. There was decrease in sex ratio over the period. Though it got increased now, the Child sex ratio indicates that the condition is not getting improved. Lower sex ratio indicates lower social and economic status of the woman. There is higher sex ratios in South Indian states and Tribal states.
    • Kerala has the highest sex ratio having 1084 females per 1000 males followed by Puducherry having 1037 females per 1000 males. Delhi has the lowest sex ratio having 868 females per 1000 males followed by Haryana having 879 females per 1000 males.

    Literacy in India

    • Literacy rate increased to 74.04% in 2011 from 64.84% in 2001. Female literacy has grown up to 65.50% from 53.67% in 2001. Male literacy rate has grown up to 82.14% from 75.26% in the year 2001.
    • Literacy rate was 5.75% in 1901, 18.33% in 1951 and 64.84% in 2001. India is known for largest illiterates in the world but at the same time it has the second largest technically qualified persons after USA.
    • Kerala has the highest literacy rate having 93.91% followed by Lakshadweep having 92.28%. Bihar has the lowest literacy rate having 63.82% followed by Arunachal Pradesh having 66.95%. Rajasthan is having the lowest female literacy rate of 52.66%.

    Religious Composition in India

    • According to 2011 Census, Hindus comprised of 79.80%, Muslims 14.23%, Christians 2.30%, Sikhs 1.72%, Buddhists 0.70%, Jains 0.37% and others comprised of 0.84%.
    • Himachal Pradesh has highest percentage of Hindu population having 95.17% of Hindus followed by Dadra and Nagar Haveli having 93.93% of Hindus. Lakshadweep has highest percentage of Muslim population having 96.58% of Muslims followed by Jammu and Kashmir having 68.31% of Muslims.
    • Nagaland has the highest percentage of Christian population having 87.93% of Christians followed by Mizoram having 87.16% of Christians. Punjab has the highest percentage of Sikh population having 57.69% of Sikhs followed by Chandigarh having 13.11% of Sikhs.
    • Sikkim has the highest percentage of Buddhist population having 27.39% of Buddhists followed by Arunachal Pradesh having 11.77% of Buddhists. Maharashtra has the highest percentage of Jain population having 1.25% of Jains followed by Delhi having 0.99% of Jains.