Indian Geography / Indian Climate
Traditionally, India has 6 seasons but from the meteorological point of view, there are 4 different types of seasons in India. They are (i) Pre Monsoon
Season extending from Mid March to Mid June, (ii) South-West Monsoon Season, extending from Mid June to Mid September, (iii) North-East Monsoon Season
extending from Mid September to Mid December and (iv) Post Monsoon Season extending from Mid December to Mid March.
India's climate is Tropical Monsoonal climate. In Tropical climate, summers are hot and winters are cool. Great Northern Plains lie in the subtropical
region, but the Himalayas make the climate Tropical because they block the cold waves coming from the North. Weather changes rapidly in the Indian subcontinent.
In India, the Thermal Range is very high in North West India and the Thermal Range is very minimum in coastal areas.
Pre Monsoon Season
- This season has very extreme weather and is very Dry and Hot.
- In this season, interiors of Deccan Plateau records more temperature.
- Convective showers can be seen in some places.
- Conditions are made favourable, called preparatory season for Monsoon. That is there will be creation of low pressure.
South-West Monsoon Season
- It is a very Hot and Wet season.
- There will be 6-80 fall in temperature, which is on account of south western warm or humid maritime winds.
- More than 2/3rd of the rainfall ( annual ) is received in this season only and hence called Rainy season. It is also called Kharif agricultural season.
North-East Monsoon Season
- By this time Sun already entered into the southern hemisphere and the Insolation received is less and hence High pressure is built up on the land and the
weather is turned into dry and cool.
- It is also the period of Retreating Monsoons, where the South-West Monsoon is getting retreated. Reversal of pressure gradient causes the retreating of
- North-East Trade winds deflect the retreating winds and make up the North East Monsoons, because of this some parts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
receive the rains.
- During this period, Cyclones occur in Bay of Bengal which causes lot of rainfall in coastal areas.
- It coincides with Rabi Agriculture season in northern plains and wheat is cultivated during this time.
- Western Disturbances - Western Disturbances occur due to cyclones in Mediterranean and Red seas and they enter the Himalayan mountains from North-West
direction during this period. These are beneficial for high yield level of wheat. They are sometimes followed by cold wave conditions reaching the temperature
up to 2-30C.
Post Monsoon Season
- This is a transition period between the winter and the summer.
- This period has unstable and unsettled weather conditions.