Indian Geography / Industries in India
There are around eight major industrial regions of India. Location of industries are generally based on the vicinity of raw materials as well as the
availability of the market. Raw materials can be Gross raw materials, which lose considerable weight during production process and Pure raw materials, which do
not lose their weight.
Industries using gross raw materials always tied to the location, e.g. Cement, Steel, Sugar Industries, etc. Pure raw material based industries can be
located at the raw material centre or at the market centre, e.g. Woolen industry will be located at market centres and Cotton industry will be located at the
cotton fields. Location of industries also depends on (i) Availability of infrastructure for transportation, e.g. Cement and Iron industries are located near
railway lines and (ii) Government policies which encourage for the industrial development, e.g. BHEL unit in Haridwar in Uttarakhand, where neither
infrastructure nor raw materials are available, was established purely on Government policies.
Major Industrial Regions
- Hooghly Belt - It is the most predominant industrial region in India with highly concentrated Jute industry. Other important industries that are
concentrated here are Cotton textiles, Leather-footwear, Chemicals, Paper, Electricals, Engineering, etc. Due to availability of raw materials like Iron ore,
Forest produce, Jute, etc. in the hinterlands of Ganga and Brahmaputra, the industry got flourished here. There are good transport ( road, rail and water )
facilities as well as cheap labour available here.
- Mumbai-Pune Belt - It is another important industrial region in India where Cotton textile industries are heavily concentrated. Other industries
that are concentrated here are Oil refineries, Chemicals and Fertilizers, Engineering, Food Processing, Synthetic and Plastic goods, Pharmaceuticals,
Electricals, etc. Raw cotton from black soils of this region, Cheap labour, Hydro power from Western Ghats, good transport facilities, good entrepreneur class
of people, etc. are some of the important factors for the development of industries in this region.
- Ahmedabad-Vadodara Belt - It is also an industrial region where Cotton textile industry is heavily concentrated. The other industries that are
concentrated here are Petrochemicals, Oil Refineries, Chemicals and Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals, Engineering goods, Plastic and Leather industries, etc.
Availability of raw cotton, skilled labour, good transportation network, availability of enough electric power, etc. are some of the factors to flourish
- Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Belt - Here also Cotton textile industry is heavily concentrated. The other important industries here are Silk, Computer
manufacturing, Industrial Electronics, Sugar, Engineering goods, Railway wagon manufacturing, many public sector undertakings, etc. Availability of cotton,
sugarcane, cheap labour, sufficient electricity due to hydro projects, proximity to consuming centers, etc. are some the reasons for growth of the industry
- Chota Nagpur Plateau Region - This region is concentrated with metallurgical and mining industries. Other industries that are concentrated here are
Engineering goods, Iron and Steel industries, Transportation equipment, etc. Vast railway network, cheap labour, development of thermal power, concentration
of minerals like, coal, iron, mica, bauxite, copper, limestone, etc. are the main factors for flourishing of industries here.
- Gurugram-Delhi-Meerut Belt - In this belt, the industries established are market oriented. Sugar, Vanaspati, Glass, Automobile, Chemicals, Textile,
Engineering goods, Paper, Electronics, Software industry, etc. are established in this region.
- Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Belt - The industries that are developed in this region include Paper, Fertilizers, Sugar, Cement, Aluminum, Steel,
Petrochemical, Engineering goods, etc. The natural gas that is found in Krishna-Godavari basin region helps in the growth of this industrial belt.
- Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Belt - It is a relatively small industrial region dominated by agricultural processing and market oriented industries.
Other industries here include Fish processing, Sugar, Glass, Rubber, Chemicals and fertilizers, Coconut coir products, Cement, etc.