Indian Geography / Industries in India
Indian Geography / Industries in India
There are eight major industrial regions of India. In these regions, more industries are concentrated because of their favorable geo-economic backgrounds. These areas will have manufacturing plants or industries on a large scale and provide the people more number of jobs. Location of industries are generally based on the vicinity of raw materials as well as the availability of the market. Raw materials can be Gross raw materials, which lose considerable weight during production process and Pure raw materials, which do not lose their weight.
Industries using gross raw materials always tied to
the location, e.g. Cement, Steel, Sugar Industries, etc. Pure raw material based industries can be located at the raw material centre or at the
market centre, e.g. Woolen industry will be located at market centres and Cotton industry will be located at the cotton fields.
Location of industries also depends on (i) Availability of infrastructure for transportation, e.g. Cement and Iron industries are located near railway lines and (ii) Government policies which encourage for the industrial development, e.g. BHEL unit in Haridwar in Uttarakhand, where neither infrastructure nor raw materials are available, was established purely on Government policies. Generally around the world, major industrial regions are located near sea ports.
The eight major industrial regions of India are given below
Hooghly industrial region is the most predominant industrial region in India with highly concentrated Jute industry. Other important industries that are
concentrated here are Cotton textiles, Leather-footwear, Chemicals, Paper, Electricals, Engineering, etc.
Due to availability of raw materials like Iron ore, Forest produce, Jute, etc. in the hinterlands of Ganga and Brahmaputra, the industry got flourished here. There are good transport (road, rail and water) facilities as well as cheap labour available here.
Mumbai Pune industrial region is one more important major industrial regions in India where Cotton
textile industries are heavily concentrated. Other industries that are concentrated here are Oil refineries, Chemicals and Fertilizers,
Engineering, Food Processing, Synthetic and Plastic goods, Pharmaceuticals, Electricals, etc.
Raw cotton from black soils of this region, Cheap labour, Hydro power from Western Ghats, good transport facilities, good entrepreneur class of people, etc. are some of the important factors for the development of industries in this region.
Ahmedabad Vadodara industrial region is also one of the industrial areas in India where Cotton textile industry is heavily concentrated. The other industries that are concentrated
here are Petrochemicals, Oil Refineries, Chemicals and Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals, Engineering goods, Plastic and Leather industries, etc.
Availability of raw cotton, skilled labour, good transportation network, availability of enough electric power, etc. are some of the factors to flourish industries in this industrial region of India.
Here also Cotton textile industry is heavily concentrated. The other important industries in Bangalore Tamil Nadu industrial region are Silk, Computer manufacturing,
Industrial Electronics, Sugar, Engineering goods, Railway wagon manufacturing, many public sector undertakings, etc.
Availability of cotton, sugarcane, cheap labour, sufficient electricity due to hydro projects, proximity to consuming centers, etc. are some the reasons for growth of the industry here.
Chota Nagpur Plateau industrial region is concentrated with metallurgical and mining industries. Other industries that are concentrated here are Engineering
goods, Iron and Steel industries,
Transportation equipment, etc.
Vast railway network, cheap labour, development of thermal power, concentration of minerals like, coal, iron, mica, bauxite, copper, limestone, etc. are the main factors for flourishing of industries here.
In Gurgaon Delhi Meerut industrial region, the industries established are market oriented. Sugar, Vanaspati, Glass, Automobile, Chemicals, Textile, Engineering goods, Paper, Electronics, Software industry, etc. are established in this industrial region of India.
The industries that are developed in Visakhapatnam Guntur industrial region include Paper, Fertilizers, Sugar, Cement, Aluminum, Steel, Petrochemical, Engineering goods, etc. The natural gas that is found in Krishna-Godavari basin region helps in the growth of this industrial belt in India.
Of all the 8 major industrial regions of India, Kollam Thiruvananthapuram industrial region is a relatively smaller industrial region dominated by agricultural processing and
market oriented industries.
Other industries here include Fish processing, Sugar, Glass, Rubber, Chemicals and fertilizers, Coconut coir products, Cement, etc.