GK Chronicle GK Chronicle

Indian Geography / Settlements in India

Language Families in India


    There are more than 5000 languages that are spoken throughout India. These languages are broadly classified into 4 language families in India, namely (i) Indo-European Languages / Aryan Languages group, (ii) Dravidian Languages group, (iii) Sino-Tibetan / Kirata group and (iv) Austric / Nishada group.

    • Indo-European Languages Group -
      • The Aryan Languages group consists of two subgroups, Indo-Aryan Languages group and Dardic group. The major languages in Indo-Aryan family consists of Sanskrit, Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali, Assamese, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, Konkani, Nepalese, Urdu, etc. Dardic group consists of the language, Kashmiri.
      • Hindi is the most spoken language in India. It is spoken in many dialects like Maithili ( Bihar, Nepal ), Bhojpuri ( Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar ), Avadhi ( Western Uttar Pradesh ) and Khariboli & Braj Bhasha ( Western and Central Uttar Pradesh ).
    • Dravidian Languages Group - The major languages in Dravidian family are Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam. The other languages in this group are Tulu, Kodava, Toda, Khond ( mixture of Telugu and Odia ), Gondi, Kurumba, Kurukh, etc.
    • Sino-Tibetan Languages Group - These languages are spoken by people of Mongoloid ethnicity. These languages are Bodo, Naga, Manipuri, Tripuri, Dafla, Sherpa, Bhotia, Ladakhi, etc.
    • Austric Languages Group - This group includes Garo and Khasi languages of Meghalaya, Nicobarese, Santhali and Munda languages of Chotanagpur Plateau.