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Indian Geography / Transportation in India

Road Transport in India


    Road transportation in India is playing crucial role in the socio-economic development of the country. The aims and objetives of road transport in India include Relieving pressure on other modes of transportation as well as reaching every nook and corner in the country, Adoption of fuel efficient technologies for reducing the cost of transportation, Development of more National Highways, Expressways and Four/Six laning of congested Corridors, Maintaining the existing roads in good conditions, Encouraging more private participation, etc. The Government of India aims at constructiing 10,000 km of national highways in FY19.

    • In the largest road networks category, the road network in the country ranks third in the world. Roads are classified into four categories in India. They are the National Highways, the State Highways, the District Roads and the Village Roads. The National Highways are constructed and maintained by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) which works under the Central Government whereas the State Government takes care of the rest of the roads. In addition to National Highways, the Union Government takes responsibility for border roads through Border Roads Organisation (BRO).
    • National Highways connect through the state capitals, major ports and other important urban centres of national importance. They give a framework to country's road network system. National Highways carry nearly 40% of road traffic but they constitute only 25% of the total road length. From 1995 onwards, private sector participation is allowed in National Highways development under Build, Operate and Transfer ( BOT ) Scheme.
    • National Highways Development Project ( NHDP ) was started in 1998 to construct 4/6 lanes in the Golden Quadrilateral connecting the four major metropolitan cities of Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai and Mumbai and to construct the North-South and East-West Corridors connecting from Srinagar and Kanyakumari and Silchar to Porbandar respectively. The NHDP was also intended to connect all major ports in India. All the roads would be free from Railway crossings. NHDP is the biggest Highway project ever taken in the country.
    • State Highways are important networks for trade and commerce and passenger movement within the state. These highways connect the State capital with district headquarters and other important towns. They also connect to the National Highways passing through that particular state.
    • District roads connect various towns and large villages with district headquarters. Development and maintenance of district roads are the responsibility of the Zilla Parishads and the State Public Works Departments. Village roads come under the purview of village Panchayats.
Extra Information

    • East-West Corridor twice merges with the Golden Quadrilateral in between Udaipur - Chittorgarh and between Akbarpur - Kanpur. North-South Corridor also twice merges with the Golden Quadrilateral in between Delhi – Agra and between Bengaluru - Krishnagiri. East-West Corridor crosses North-South Corridor at Jhansi. Salem – Coimbatore – Kochi is an extension of North-South Corridor.
    • Central Road Research Institute is located at New Delhi.