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Modern History / British Conquest of India

Anglo Mysore Wars and Subsidiary Alliance System

    Anglo Mysore Wars were fought between the British and Hyder Ali and later continued by his son Tipu Sultan. Mysore was a province of Vijayanagara empire with Srirangapatna as its capital. In 1610, a Nayak of Vijayanagara kingdom named Raja Wodeyar I declared complete independence and they ruled Mysore until 1947.

    Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan

    • In 1750s, there was a rise of a Muslim soldier named Hyder Ali in Mysore kingdom. He was a poor and illiterate ordinary soldier. Later he was made as Faujdar of Dindigul.
    • In 1761, Hyder Ali captured the throne of Mysore by deposing Chikka Krishnaraja Wodeyar and held him in house arrest. Hyder Ali did not take the title Sultan but ruled in the name of Wodeyars.
    • Hyder Ali ruled between 1761 and 1782. During this period, Mysore has expanded by leaps and bounds (from Kerala to Rayalaseema). After Hyder Ali's death in 1782, Tipu Sultan (son of Hyder Ali) ruled Mysore from 1782 to 1799.
    • Tipu Sultan

      • Tipu took the title Sultan and did not recognize the Wodeyars.
      • Tipu Sultan has become a member of Jacobin club (Political Party of France). It is the Jacobin Party which led the French revolution.
      • In Srirangapatna, he planted a tree of liberty in commemoration of Victory of French Revolution.

    Anglo Mysore Wars

    Four wars were fought between the British and Mysore kingdom, known as Anglo-Mysore wars.

    • First Anglo Mysore War (1766-1769)

      It was fought between Hyder Ali and Lord Macartney, the then governor of Madras. There was no result from this war. A status quo treaty was concluded at Madras, known as Treaty of Madras.

    • Second Anglo Mysore War (1780-1784)

      The British side was fought by Governor General Warren Hastings. Hyder Ali died because of cancer in 1782. His son Tipu Sultan went forward with the war. There was no result from this war. A status quo treaty was concluded at Mangalore in 1784.

    • Third Anglo Mysore War (1790-1792)

      The British Governor General Lord Cornwallis formed a tripartite alliance with Marathas and the Nizam to pit against Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan has been defeated in this war. A treaty was concluded at Srirangapatna in 1792. Almost 50 % of Mysore was shared among Marathas, Nizam and the British.

      Malabar, Dindigul and Baramahal were taken over by the British. Krishna-Tungabhadra doab was taken over by the Marathas and Rayalaseema was taken over by Nizam. Rs 3.3 Crore was the war indemnity imposed on Tipu Sultan. His two sons were taken to Calcutta as guarantee.

    • Fourth Anglo Mysore War (1799)

      The British side was fought by Governor General Lord Wellesley. Tipu Sultan was killed and Mysore was occupied.

      After 1799, a small state of Mysore was created by Wellesley consisting of Mysore, Srirangapatna and the surrounding areas. It was given to Krishna Raja Wadiyar III and the rest was annexed to British India. For doing this, the Wadiyars had to sign the Subsidiary Alliance, which was introduced by Wellesley in 1798.

    Subsidiary Alliance System

    The provisions of Subsidiary Alliance are

    • Safety of the signatories will be looked after by the British, that is it will protect the signatory from internal rebellion and external aggression.
    • The British would maintain subsidiary troops in the capital. The cost incurred for the troops would be borne by the native rulers. The subsidiary amount could be paid as cash or territory could be ceded to the British for the required amount.
    • External affairs should be given to the British (wars and treaties)
    • The signatory should not allow any foreigner without the permission from the British.
    • A British Resident will be appointed in the capital to look after all the issues.

    The first king to sign the Subsidiary Alliance was Nizam of Hyderabad in 1798. In 1800, the territories that were given to the British under Subsidiary Alliance system were Cuddapah, Anantapur, Kurnool and Bellary. In 1801, Awadh king Saadat Ali Khan signed Subsidiary Alliance and the entire Rohilkhand area was given to the British.