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Modern History / Arrival of Europeans

Arrival of Portuguese in India

    Arrival of Portuguese in India started when Vasco Da Gama reached Calicut in Kerala on 20th May, 1498. After he returned from India, Estado Da India company was established in Portugal in 1500 AD to make trade with India. After that, the company merchants started arriving in India.

    Portuguese Settlements in India

    The following sites were the Portuguese settlements in India.

    • Calicut (first settlement in India in 1500), Cochin and Cannanare (Kannur) all in Kerala.

    • Bombay, Salsette and Bassein all in Maharashtra.

    • Surat, Bhavnagar, Diu and Daman all in Gujarat coast.

    • Chittagong, Satgaon and Hooghly all in Bengal.

    Portuguese Trade in India

    • In India, the first Governor of Portuguese settlements was Francisco de Almeida. He followed a policy called Blue Water Policy. He gave much importance to sea trade.

    • The second Governor was Afonso de Albuquerque. In 1510, he conquered Goa from Bijapur Sultans. He concluded a friendly treaty in 1511 with Sri Krishnadevaraya.

    • In 1530, Governor Nino da Cunha shifted the headquarters from Cochin to Goa. In 1556, first printing press was set up in Goa.

    • Portuguese introduced new crops, namely Tobacco, Chillies and Maize.

    • Shah Jahan defeated Portuguese and expelled them from Bengal. Peshwa Baji Rao I captured Bassein and Salsette from Portuguese.

    • Portuguese were repeatedly defeated by the British. Portuguese were allowed to stay in Goa, Diu and Daman. They continued there until 1961.

    • They were the last Europeans to go from India. They were removed from India by Operation Vijay (Military Action) in 1961.