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Modern History / Gandhian Movement

Simon Commission Notes

In 1927, two high level commissions were constituted by the British Government namely, Indian Statutory Commission more popularly known as Simon Commission to study about the Government of India Act, 1919 including Dyarchy and to recommend the necessary changes and Indian States Commission popularly known as Butler Commission to study Centre State relations.

Simon Commission 1927

  • Simon Commission was a 1+6 members commission. All the members were white men. Hence, it is also called Whiteman's Commission. It was constituted in 1927 and it came to India in 1928.

  • In 1927 Congress session at Madras, the whole session discussed only on Simon Commission. Under president M.A. Ansari, Congress party passed Simon boycott resolution. When Simon Commission came to India, there was blockade of Railway stations.

  • When it came to Lahore, the anti-Simon movement was carried out by Lala Lajpat Rai. He was badly beaten by the Britishers and died of injuries. In this context, Lala Lajpat Rai says, "Every blow on my body would become a nail to the coffin of British empire in India".

  • In Lucknow, it was led by Jawaharlal Nehru. He was injured and got hospitalized.

  • In Madras, it was led by Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu. His bravery in this movement gave him the title "Andhra Kesari".

  • Simon Commission was supported by many other parties like Swaraj Party, 50% of All India Muslim League, Punjab Federalist party and Ambedkar who denanded separate electorates for Dalits.

  • Before taking any decision on Simon Commission, the British wanted to have Round Table Conference.

  • Congress party opposed the Simon Report, 1928 and it prepared a rival report called Nehru Report, 1928 prepared by Motilal Nehru. Similarly, Muhammad Ali Jinnah prepared his own report, known as Jinnah's 14 Points, 1929.

  • Simon Commission recommended separate electorate for Dalits.

  • Government of India Act, 1935 was based on the recommendations of Simon Commission.

Lahore Session of Congress 1929

  • The president of this session was Jawaharlal Nehru.

  • Poorna Swaraj Resolution (Complete Independence Resolution) was passed.

  • It was decided that 26th January, 1930 should be celebrated as Independence Day and every year, Independence Day would be celebrated on this date.

  • On 31st December, 1929, the delegates of the session hoisted the National Flag officially on the banks of river Ravi.

  • A Resolution was passed to boycott Round Table Conference.

  • A Resolution on Civil Disobedience Movement was passed.