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Modern History / Gandhian Movement

Formation of Swaraj Party

The main reason for formation of Swaraj Party was to oppose the British policies inside the Legislature by contesting the 1923 elections, which the Congress Party wanted to boycott. The Swaraj Party was founded by Chittaranjan Das (C.R. Das) and Motilal Nehru.

Swaraj Party and its Achievements

  • During the Gaya Session of Congress in 1922, two groups emerged in the Congress party. The two groups were called Pro-changers and No-changers. Pro-changers wanted to contest elections and carry on non-cooperation inside the Legislature, whereas No-changers wanted to boycott the elections in 1923.

  • The prominent leaders of Pro-changers were C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru and the prominent leaders of No-changers were Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajagopalachari and Babu Rajendra Prasad.

  • C.R. Das introduced the Council Entry Resolution and it was defeated. C.R. Das gave resignation to the president post and declared the formation of Swaraj Party (also called Congress Khilafat Swaraj Party) in December, 1922. The Swaraj Party was formed in the year 1923.

  • Chittaranjan Das was the first president of Swaraj party whereas Motilal Nehru became the first secretary of Swaraj party.

  • "The Swaraj Party is an integral party of Congress with Congress agenda", says C.R. Das.

  • Since the two aims of Swaraj Party were to contest the elections and continue non-cooperation inside the Legislature, they contested the 1923 elections with great participation.

    The Swarajists won 42 out of 142 seats in the Central Legislative Assembly in 1923 elections. Vithalbhai J. Patel of Swaraj Party became the Speaker or the President of Central Legislative Assembly in 1925.

  • Swaraj party was against Dyarchy or dual government. Under its pressure, the British constituted Muddiman Committee to review Dyarchy in 1924.

  • Though the formation of Swaraj Party was done with great enthusiasm, it could not sustain for a longer duration. After the death of Chittaranjan Das in 1925, there was gradual decline of the party and in 1926 elections, the party was badly defeated.