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Modern History / Independence and Partition

CR Formula or Rajagopalachari Formula


    After Pakistan Resolution or Lahore Resolution was passed by All India Muslim League (AIML) in 1940, four important plans were suggested to sort out the issue of Pakistan. They were (i) CR Formula (1944), (ii) Wavell Plan (1945), (iii) Cabinet Mission Plan (1946) and (iv) Mountbatten Plan (1947).



    CR Formula and Desai-Liaquat Pact

    • C Rajagopalachari is popularly known as CR or Rajaji. In 1942, he opposed the Congress party by differing against Quit India Movement and left the party and later rejoined again. He was one of the ministers in the interim government formed by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1946. It was he, who founded Swatantra Party in 1959.

    • He proposed a formula in 1944 popularly known as CR Formula or Rajagopalachari Formula or Rajaji Formula to elucidate the issue of Pakistan. According to this formula

      • Congress and Muslim League should unite and fight together against the British.
      • After transfer of power, Pakistan will be created for Muslims.
      • Plebiscite is to be conducted where the population is in equal proportion.

    • To discuss about the CR Formula, Gandhi Jinnah talks were held in 1944. There was a deadlock in the Gandhi-Jinnah dialogue over the issue of plebiscite where Jinnah demanded for consensus of only Muslims to be taken.

    • With Gandhi Jinnah talks, India has taken a step forward for partition as the issue of creating Pakistan was accepted by both Gandhi and Jinnah.

    • After CR Formula failed to make any progress, Desai-Liaquat Pact was planned in January 1945 to remove the differences. According to the draft proposal, there would be formation of an interim government at the Centre comprising of (i) Equal number of persons from Congress and Muslim League and (ii) 20% seats are to be reserved for minorities. But the Desai Liaquat Pact also failed.