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Modern History / Independence and Partition

CR Formula or Rajagopalachari Formula


    All India Muslim League (AIML) demanded for partition of India in 1940 at Lahore. After Pakistan Resolution or Lahore Resolution was passed by AIML, four important plans were suggested to sort out the issue of Pakistan. They were (i) CR Formula (1944), (ii) Wavell Plan (1945), (iii) Cabinet Mission Plan (1946) and (iv) Mountbatten Plan (1947).

    Rajaji Formula and Desai-Liaquat Pact

    • C Rajagopalachari is popularly known as CR or Rajaji. In 1942, C Rajagopalachari left Congress party by differing against Quit India Movement and founded a political party called Swatantra Party.

    • Rajaji proposed a formula in 1944 popularly known as CR Formula or Rajagopalachari Formula or Rajaji Formula to elucidate the issue of Pakistan. According to this formula

      • Congress and Muslim League should unite and fight together against the British.
      • After transfer of power, Pakistan will be created for Muslims.
      • Plebiscite is to be conducted where the population is in equal proportion.

    • To discuss about the CR Formula, talks were held between Mahatma Gandhi and Jinnah. There was a deadlock over the plebiscite issue by Jinnah, who demanded for consensus of only Muslims to be taken.

    • With Gandhi Jinnah talks, India has taken a step forward for partition as the issue of creating Pakistan was accepted by both Gandhi and Jinnah.

    • Desai-Liaquat Pact was followed by CR Formula to remove the differences. According to the draft proposal, there would be formation of an interim government at the Centre comprising of (i) Equal number of persons from Congress and Muslim League and (ii) 20% seats are to be reserved for minorities. But the Desai Liaquat Pact failed.