Indian Polity / Constitutional Offices and Authorities
We generally have 3 types of offices or bodies in India namely, (i) Constitutional bodies or offices, (ii) Statutory or
Legal bodies or offices and (iii) Extra Constitutional as well as extra Legal bodies.
Constitutional Bodies in India
- It is any office that is being created by the Constitution or it has its origin in the Constitution itself. Examples of Constitutional Bodies in India include Election Commission of India, Public Service Commissions, Finance Commission, Inter State Council, Comptroller and Auditor General, Attorney General, Advocate General of a State, etc.
- The following bodies are the Constitutional bodies which were accorded a Constitutional status eventually or subsequently by amending the Constitution of
They are National Commission for SCs (Article 338), National Commission for STs (Article 338A), National Commission for Backward Classes
(through 102nd Constitutional Ammendment by inserting Article 338B), etc.
- If an office is a multi-membered one, it is called a body. If it is a single member one, it is called office or officer.
- Some offices or bodies like Election Commission of India, Comptroller and Auditor General and Finance Commission are common to both Union and States.
are exclusively for the Union like Attorney General, Union Public Service Commission, etc. and some are exclusively for the States like Advocate General, State
Public Service Commission, etc.
- Some offices or bodies are permanent and some are temporary in nature. Finance Commission in India is a temporary body, which
implies that it will be constituted for every 5 years.
Legal or Statutory Bodies in India
If any office or body is being created by the law of the Parliament or by the state legislature, it will be called Statutory or Legal Body.
Some examples of Statutory Bodies in India are National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Women, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights, UGC, SEBI, IRDAI, etc.
Extra Constitutional and Extra Legal Bodies in India
These bodies are neither created by the Constitution nor by any Law of the Parliament. They are created by Executive orders that is by the decision of the Cabinet. Some examples of Extra Constitutional Bodies in India are NITI Aayog, National Development Council, Law Commission, etc.