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Indian Polity / Indian Union and States

Linguistic Reorganization of States in India

    Linguistic reorganization of states in India was done majorly in 1956. But Andhra State is the first state to be formed on the language basis in 1953. For a long time, Andhra Mahasabha was demanding a separate state for the Telugu speaking people in the Madras Presidency.

    In June, 1948, Constituent Assembly appointed Linguistic Provinces Commission headed by S.K. Dhar along with two other members, Pannalal and Jagat Narain Lal. This Commission rejected the demand for linguistic states.

    JVP Committee

    In December, 1948, the Central Government appointed a Committee comprising of Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel and Pattabhi Seetharamaiah, popularly known as JVP Committee.

    It also rejected the language as basis for reorganization of states. But after the death of Sri Potti Sriramulu on December 15, 1952 during hunger strike for 56 days, Jawaharlal Nehru announced in the Parliament for creation of Andhra State.

    Andhra State came into existence from 1st October, 1953. Andhra Pradesh was formed by merging Andhra State with part of Hyderabad State in 1956. Again in 2014, Andhra Pradesh state was divided into Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.

    State Reorganization Commission

    In 1953, the Central Government appointed a State Reorganization Commission under the chairmanship of Fazal Ali with two other members K.M. Panikkar and H.N. Kunzru.

    It submitted its report in the year 1955 and recommended for reorganization of states. Accordingly, Parliament enacted State Reorganization Act, 1956.

    7th Constitutional Amendment was made and accordingly, states were reorganized. In this Amendment, PART VII of the Constitution, which dealt with the states in PART B of the first schedule, was deleted.

    With this amendment, all category states were abolished. All the states were brought under the same roof.

    Chronological Order of Formation of States

    The states that were there before 1956 were Assam, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

    State Name Year of Formation
    Andhra Pradesh 1956
    Karnataka 1956
    Kerala 1956
    Madhya Pradesh 1956
    Maharashtra 1960
    Gujarat 1960
    Nagaland 1963
    Haryana 1966
    Himachal Pradesh 1971
    Manipur 1972
    Tripura 1972
    Meghalaya 1972
    Sikkim 1975
    Mizoram 1987
    Arunachal Pradesh 1987
    Goa 1987
    Chattisgarh 2000
    Uttarakhand 2000
    Jharkhand 2000
    Telangana 2014

    Languages in Eighth Schedule of Constitution

    Originally, there were only 14 languages in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution. Sindhi was added in 1967 by the 21st Amendment of the Constitution. Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added in 1992 by the 71st Amendment of the Constitution. Bodo, Dogri, Mythili and Santhali were added in 2003 by the 92nd Amendment of the Constitution.

    S. No. Language State or UT in which it is mainly spoken
    1 Assamese Assam
    2 Bengali West Bengal and Tripura
    3 Bodo Assam and Meghalaya
    4 Dogri Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh
    5 Gujarati Gujarat
    6 Hindi Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh
    7 Kannada Karnataka
    8 Kashmiri Jammu & Kashmir
    9 Konkani Goa
    10 Mythili Bihar and Jharkhand
    11 Malayalam Kerala
    12 Manipuri Manipur
    13 Marathi Maharashtra
    14 Nepali Sikkim
    15 Odia Odisha
    16 Punjabi Punjab
    17 Sanskrit Mattur village in Shivamogga district of Karnataka
    18 Santhali Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal
    19 Sindhi Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh
    20 Tamil Tamil Nadu
    21 Telugu Andhra Pradesh and Telangana
    22 Urdu Jammu & Kashmir, Telangana and Uttar Pradesh