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Indian Polity / Judiciary

Single Integrated Judicial System in India


    We have a single and integrated judicial system in India. Single by we mean, there is no division of judiciary. That is, there are no separate set of courts for Central and State laws. Integrated means all the lower courts in India work under the control and supervision of Supreme Court. Single and integrated Judiciary is said to be anti-federal feature.

    • Articles 124 to 147 deal with the structure, composition, powers and functions of Supreme Court.
    • Supreme court was established in 1935 in the name of Federal Court. Supreme Court of India settles all federal disputes. Federal Court became Supreme Court of India on 26th January, 1950 onwards.
    • The independence, impartiality, supremacy element of Supreme Court and the removal of judge of Supreme Court are taken from USA.
    • Genesis, composition and structure of Supreme Court is taken from the Act of 1935.
    • Article 124 says Supreme Court shall contain a Chief Justice and such number of other judges as fixed by the Parliament of India from time to time through an Ordinary Legislation with simple majority that does not amount to Amendment of Constitution.
Extra Information

    • In 1774, a Supreme Court was established at Kolkata only for Bengal. Though the name matches with the current Apex Court, it was not the highest court.
    • At present there are 1 + 30 judges in the Supreme Court. However, when the Supreme Court came into force in 1950, there were 1 + 7 judges.
      In 1956, it was increased to 1 + 10 judges.
      In 1960, it was increased to 1 + 13 judges.
      In 1978, it was increased to 1 + 17 judges.
      In 1985, it was increased to 1 + 25 judges.
      In 2008, it was increased to 1 + 30 judges.
      In 2019, it was increased to 1 + 33 judges.