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Indian Polity / Centre State Relations

Introduction of Centre State Relation

Centre State relations in India are utmost important for the survival of the Indian federation. Though the word or expression Federalism or Federation is not mentioned in the Constitution, India is a federal country because it qualifies all the basic features of a federation like division of powers, dual Governments, written and rigid Constitution, bicameralism at Central level, etc. At the same time, there is independent and impartial judiciary as well as supremacy of the Constitution.

Anti-Federal Features of Indian Constitution

  • Certain critics pointed out unitary or anti-federal features in the Constitution. They are

    • Single Constitution except for the State of Jammu and Kashmir

    • No division of Judiciary. Ours is a single and integrated Judiciary

    • Appointed Governors

    • All India Services

    • Unequal representation in Rajya Sabha

    • Emergency provisions

    • States do not have power to initiate Constitutional Amendments

    • Single citizenship

  • In India, we have a practicable or working federation rather than a theoretical federation because federation is not a concept or ideology to have common principles. Rather it is a process having an element of dynamics.

  • Successful working of a federation depends on Centre-State relations. We have 3 types of relations between Centre and states. They are

    (i) Legislative relationship

    (ii) Administrative relationship

    (iii) Financial relationship