Indian Polity / Fundamental Rights
Articles 29 and 30 talk about exclusive rights for minorities which are cultural and educational rights in India. Here, minorities include both religious
as well as linguistic minorities. In India, except Hindus, almost all are religious minorities. Similarly, in case of linguistic minorities, except the major
language speaking people of a state, all others will come under linguistic minorities. For example in Odisha, except the people who speak Odia as mother tongue,
all others will be linguistic minorities.
- Article 29 says any section of the citizens, having a distinct culture, distinct language or script and residing in Indian territory, have their right to
preserve it. Similarly, no citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution run by State funds on the ground of race, religion, language
or caste. However, State can implement the reservations to SCs, STs and OBCs while admitting to educational institutions.
- Article 30 says both religious as well as linguistic minorities have every right to establish and administer educational institutions. While granting the
aid to the educational institutions, State shall not discriminate such minority educational institutions.
- The main difference between Article 29 and Article 30 is that Article 29 talks about any section of the citizens, having a distinct culture, distinct
language or script while Article 30 talks about minorities, both religious and linguistic.